2ND LIFE – Value of second life batteries in the future energy system

2ND LIFE will develop knowledge to identify and quantify opportunities and barriers for establishing new energy storage solutions for the European market based on re-use of electric vehicle (EV) batteries, so called second life batteries.

The project focuses on increased innovation and export of Norwegian battery second life market and special emphasis is placed on the priority area of The energy system and markets. Through extensive screening of energy storage applications and use cases of second life batteries, the priority area of Efficient use of energy in buildings, industry, and the transport sector  will also be thoroughly covered.

2ND LIFE further covers  the topic of Energy policy, economics and sustainability, based on activities related to life cycle assessments and regulations around re-cycling and re-use of second life batteries.

The project is also of significant value to questions of energy use and conversion, as new battery and battery system solutions will be covered, in addition to the focus on safety aspects.

The project will provide a novel understanding of safety and degradation aspects of used EV batteries. Combined with techno-economic assessment and environmental impact analyses, we will be able to prepare the Norwegian second life battery market for the rising need of energy storage in the European energy system.


Although the market opportunities look promising, there are some critical obstacles that needs attention. The large number of battery pack designs presents a challenge to achieve secure and efficient supply chains;  falling costs of new batteries and re-manufacturing might affect cost-efficiency of second-life batteries and the safety and remaining usable life is not well known.

There is also a need for better regulations in iorder todetermin responsibilities among battery value chain actors which consequently affects distribution of batteries between recirculation and second life.


The overall objective is to identify and quantify obstacles and opportunities for the Norwegian 2nd life battery market’s ability to contribute to the European strive towards a carbon-neutral economy by:

o Developing statistics of End-of 1st life batteries existing in the Norwegian market

o Studying properties and potential of aged Li-ion cells

o Understanding the battery safety of 1st and 2nd life Li-ion cells

o Developing models prediction of performance for 2nd life batteries

o Designing and optimizing use cases for showcasing main export solutions

o Quantifying the overall impact on environment through LCA analysis for the different use cases



Battery Technology  and Renewable Energy Systems departments at IFE,  The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI), The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), The University of Agder (UiA), Department of Chemical Engineering at UC London and The Solar Energy Cluster (SEC).

The Norwegian Research Consortium have shown an excellent scientific level in the field of Li-ion battery ageing and safety studies, thermal and material characterization, as well as for tecno-economic modelling. The different research partners have complimentary knowledge which will strengthen the collaboration within the project. The international research partner has an exceptional standing with respect to material characterization and modelling and will further complement and enhance the research team.

The funding partners of the 2ND LIFE project consist of the following: Equinor, Hydro, Batteriretur, Eco-Stor and Corvus.